Musculoskeletal Disorders

Musculoskeletal DisordersWhat are MSDs?

MSDs are injuries that affect muscles, tendons, ligaments and nerves. Injuries can develop when the same muscles are used repetitively, or for a long time without adequate rest. This type of injury increases if the force exerted is high and/or the job requires aw awkward posture. Some examples of MSDs include back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, tendonitis and tenosynovitis.

MSDs do not include musculoskeletal injuries or disorders that are the direct result of a traumatic event, such as a fall, being struck by or against an object, being caught in or on something, a vehicle collision,
or workplace violence.

What the law says

Employers are required by law to take every reasonable precaution to protect workers from hazards, including those that may result in MSD injuries. The MSD prevention guideline, announced in February 2007, is clear about employers’ obligations. Numerous sections under the Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSA) and regulations relate to MSD prevention and ergonomics.

How MSDs can affect your business

MSDs account for 43% of all work-related injuries, 43% of all lost-time claim costs, and 46% of all lost-time days. (Source: MOL: Prevention Workplace Pains and Strains! It’s time to take action!)

Between 2003 and 2007, MSD claims resulted in 2.5 million days off work. During this same period, Ontario employers paid more than $1 billion in direct and indirect costs related to MSDs. Indirect costs include overtime, equipment modifications, administration, retraining and lost productivity.

Employers can improve their bottom line and employee morale by fitting the work environment to the worker. Less strenuous tasks make it easier to train workers. Healthy workers, free from discomfort, are more efficient.

 

What you can do

Handle MSD risk factors the way you would any other workplace hazard: identify where workers could sustain an MSD injury and eliminate or control it. Make MSD prevention a key element of your workplace health and safety program. Apply ergonomic principles early in the design phase of a new process or task to save money.

Steps you can take:

  • Familiarize yourself with MSD hazards in your workplace
  • Perform your own audit
  • Establish controls to reduce worker exposure to MSD risk factors
  • Have a well-documented MSD program visibly in place
  • Implement MSD-specific strategies, tools and training
  • Train workers about the MSD risk factors in their job and in the workplace
  • Encourage workers to report MSD symptoms or concerns

Consulting Services

Consulting Services Awareness Sessions

Consulting Services Awareness Sessions

Awareness sessions are presentations of up to 2 hours in length delivered at your workplace by WSPS consultants. They are designed to help meet your legal duty to provide information about workplace hazards to employees.


General Consulting Services

General Consulting Services

Integrating health and safety into your workplace is good business.  WSPS’ consultants employ a results-based approach to health, safety and environment, focused on building self-reliance,  and enabling your organization to implement, manage and continually improve your health and safety programs.

WSPS Safety Group

WSPS Safety Group

WSPS is the largest Safety Group provider and one of the longest running sponsors in the province. With our extensive experience and proven track record, by working with us and other member firms participating firms can achieve better results, and qualify for WSIB rebates.

Training

Building an MSD Prevention Program (Four 1/2 day modules)

Building an MSD Prevention Program (Four 1/2 day modules)

NEW! This course is designed for a group of individuals (employees and management) interested in working together to apply ergonomics principles in the workplace for the purpose of improving working conditions while controlling MSD hazards.

View Details 
Call for pricing

Conducting Office Ergonomic Assessments (1 day)

Conducting Office Ergonomic Assessments (1 day)

This comprehensive workshop includes proven methodology and practical hands-on training. Currently available for on-site location delivery.
View Details 
$249.00

Conducting Office Ergonomic Assessments (Federal) - English

Conducting Office Ergonomic Assessments (Federal) - English

NEW! This course provides federally regulated workplaces with proven methodology to identify the root causes of office musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and conduct workstation assessments.

View Details 
$209.00

Conducting Office Ergonomic Assessments (Federal) - French

Conducting Office Ergonomic Assessments (Federal) - French

NEW! This course provides federally regulated workplaces with proven methodology to identify the root causes of office musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and conduct workstation assessments.

View Details 
$209.00

Nuts and Bolts of Implementing an MSD Prevention Program (1 day)

Nuts and Bolts of Implementing an MSD Prevention Program (1 day)

Learn how to implement an MSD prevention program and assess and control MSD hazards.
View Details 
$249.00

Safe Lifting (1/2 day )

Safe Lifting (1/2 day )

Safe Lifting is a half-day, practical course designed to provide training on performing proper lifting techniques. Supervisors and other appropriate personnel are additionally equipped to deliver 10 min Safe Lifting safety talks to their employees.
View Details 
Call for pricing

E-Courses

(ON) Office Ergonomics in Ontario (1 hour)

(ON) Office Ergonomics in Ontario (1 hour)

Find solutions to ergonomic issues for your Ontario workplace.
View Details 
$49.00

Lifting It Right: 2014 Online Edition (30 min)

Lifting It Right: 2014 Online Edition (30 min)

Online course by the Automotive Lift Institute, Inc. (ALI) and hosted by racing legends Richard and Kyle Petty.

View Details 
$24.00

Manual Materials Handling (English) (1 hour)

Manual Materials Handling (English) (1 hour)

Learn how to prevent manual material handling (MMH) injuries at your workplace by developing the skills needed to identify and control risk factors associated with MMH work.
View Details 
$49.00

Manual Materials Handling (French) (1 hour)

Manual Materials Handling (French) (1 hour)

Learn how to prevent manual material handling (MMH) injuries at your workplace by developing the skills needed to identify and control risk factors associated with MMH work.
View Details 
$49.00

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs): Awareness

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs): Awareness

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a potential risk for all sectors and occupations. They can cause discomfort, fatigue, pain, injury, and illness to workers. In fact, work-related musculoskeletal injuries are the most frequent type of lost-time injury and are the largest source of lost-time worker compensation costs in Canada.
View Details 
$0.00

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs): Prevention (English) (1 hour)

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs): Prevention (English) (1 hour)

This course focuses on good ergonomics principles and work organization as key prevention measures.
View Details 
$64.00

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs): Prevention (French) (1 hour)

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs): Prevention (French) (1 hour)

This course focuses on good ergonomics principles and work organization as key prevention measures.
View Details 
$64.00

Office Ergonomics (English) (1 hour)

Office Ergonomics (English) (1 hour)

The goal of the course is to provide you with the knowledge to help find solutions to ergonomic issues in your workplace.
View Details 
$49.00

Office Ergonomics (French) (1 hour)

Office Ergonomics (French) (1 hour)

The goal of the course is to provide you with the knowledge to help find solutions to ergonomic issues in your workplace.
View Details 
$49.00

Webinars

Are You Ready for the MOL Manufacturing Blitz?

Are You Ready for the MOL Manufacturing Blitz?

This webinar will be of interest to all firms in the industrial sector, that have key hazards associated with manufacturing processes, including guarding and lockout, workplace violence, MSDs, occupational disease (noise and chemical exposure), as well as those that are looking to strengthen their internal responsibility system.
View Details 
$0.00


The Dollars and Sense of Ergonomics

The Dollars and Sense of Ergonomics

Find out how two very different organizations made low-cost ergonomic changes and reaped benefits.
View Details 
$0.00

Downloads

Cooking and Baking

Cooking and Baking

This guideline highlights the hazards associated with cooking and baking and provides safe work guidelines to help minimalize or eliminate the risk.
265 KB pdf
Discomfort Survey

Discomfort Survey

An assessment survey to determine musculoskeletal disorders.
341 KB pdf
Ergonomic Best Practices for the Wood Pallet and Container Association

Ergonomic Best Practices for the Wood Pallet and Container Association

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are conditions or injuries that generally develop over a period of time as a result of repeated exposure to awkward postures, excessive force, and high rates of repetition. They are the most prevalent reported injury and within the wood pallet and container industry this is no exception.
1100 KB PDF
Ergonomic Handbook for the Clothing Industry

Ergonomic Handbook for the Clothing Industry

Published by the Union of Needletrades, Industrial Textile Employees, the Institute for Work & Health, and the Occupational Health Clinics for Ontario Workers, Inc.

This book looks at conditions in the clothing industry to find out how wrist, shoulder, neck and back injuries can be prevented.
1497 KB pdf
Hotel Housekeeping

Hotel Housekeeping

This guide provides things to keep in mind while working, but the employer's specific policies and procedures related to the job requirements should be reviewed with you by your supervisor/manager.
405 KB PDF
Job Aid - Manual Material Handling

Job Aid - Manual Material Handling

MSD hazard awareness information for manual material handling.
888 KB PDF
Loading Docks and Warehouses

Loading Docks and Warehouses

There are many hazards associated with loading docks.  This guideline outlines these hazards and offers some safe work guidelines to eliminate or minimalize the risk.
278 KB pdf
Manual Material Handling Safety

Manual Material Handling Safety

Manual material handling safety tips for workers.
482 KB PDF
Manual Materials Handling

Manual Materials Handling

Most workplaces have a manual materials handling operation.  Each handling task poses unique demands on the worker.  These tasks can be performed safely and easily by implementing and upholding proper policies and procedures.
368 KB pdf
MSD Hazards Checklist

MSD Hazards Checklist

A checklist to assess the ergonomic risks of each job task.
317 KB pdf
MSD Risk Assessment

MSD Risk Assessment

This document will help you determine if there is a high risk of injury once the potential risk of a musculoskeletal disorder has been identified.
483 KB pdf
Musculoskeletal disorders: two steps to managing your risk

Musculoskeletal disorders: two steps to managing your risk

Small and medium-sized companies struggle to find best practices that can reduce sprains and strains in the workplace. What's the business case for prevention? What does the law say? Discover the two basic steps you need to take to manage this top hazard in your organization, and click on links to additional resources specifically relevant to you.

120 KB PDF
Office Workstation Design

Office Workstation Design

This document outlines how workstation layout, lighting and task design can affect the physical and visual demands on people who work with computers.
255 KB pdf
OHSCO MSD Prevention Guideline for Ontario (English)

OHSCO MSD Prevention Guideline for Ontario (English)

The guideline, resource manual and toolboxes were developed in partnership with the members of OHSCO, which is comprised of the Ministry of Labour, the WSIB, the Institute for Work and Health and the health and safety associations.  The Centre of Research Expertise for the Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders (CRE-MSD) also assisted in its development.

This guideline describes a recommended framework for MSD prevention.
771 KB pdf
OHSCO MSD Prevention Guideline for Ontario (French)

OHSCO MSD Prevention Guideline for Ontario (French)

The guideline, resource manual and toolboxes were developed in partnership with the members of OHSCO, which is comprised of the Ministry of Labour, the WSIB, the Institute for Work and Health and the health and safety associations.  The Centre of Research Expertise for the Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders (CRE-MSD) also assisted in the development.
663 KB pdf
OHSCO MSD Prevention Toolbox A (English)

OHSCO MSD Prevention Toolbox A (English)

The MSD Prevention toolbox provides basic and simple-to-use tools and worksheets to help with your MSD prevention program.  The toolbox is broken into three parts; this is part A.
1789 KB pdf
OHSCO MSD Prevention Toolbox A (French)

OHSCO MSD Prevention Toolbox A (French)

The MSD Prevention Toolbox provides basic and simple-to-use tools and worksheets to ehlp with your MSD prevention program.  The Toolbox is broken into three parts.  This is part A.
1824 KB pdf
OHSCO MSD Prevention Toolbox B (English)

OHSCO MSD Prevention Toolbox B (English)

The primary purpose of Toolbox B is to provide workplace parties with additional information and tools that they can use to enhance their current MSD prevention process and, if required, move beyond a simple MSD risk assessment.  In this toolbox you will find a tool to help you review your MSD prevention process, information on calculating the costs of MSDs, a sample MSD prevention policy / procedure, additional MSD hazard recognition tools, an MSD risk assessment checklist, and a tool to help you communicate the results of an MSD prevention project.
475 KB pdf
OHSCO MSD Prevention Toolbox B (French)

OHSCO MSD Prevention Toolbox B (French)

The primary purpose of Toolbox B is to provide workplace parties with additional information and tools that they can use to enhance their current MSD prevention process and, if required, move beyond a simple MSD risk assessment.  In this toolbox you will find a tool to help you review your MSD prevention process, information on calculating the costs of MSDs, a sample MSD prevention policy / procedure, additional MSD hazard recognition tools, an MSD risk assessment checklist, and a tool to help you communicate the results of an MSD prevention project.
497 KB pdf
OHSCO MSD Prevention Toolbox C (English)

OHSCO MSD Prevention Toolbox C (English)

The primary purpose of Toolbox C is to provide workplace parties with additional information on in-depth MSD risk assessment methods. The risk assessment methods described in this toolbox may be helpful if the simple risk assessment method as described in the MSD Resource Manual has not identified with MSD hazards are of concern or how exposure can be controlled.
324 KB pdf
OHSCO MSD Prevention Toolbox C (French)

OHSCO MSD Prevention Toolbox C (French)

The primary purpose of Toolbox C is to provide workplace parties with additional information on in-depth MSD risk assessment methods.  The risk assessment methods described in this toolbox may be helpful if the simple risk assessment method as described in the MSD Resource Manual has not identified with MSD hazards are of concern or how exposure can be controlled.
381 KB pdf
OHSCO Resource Manual for the MSD Prevention Guideline for Ontario (English)

OHSCO Resource Manual for the MSD Prevention Guideline for Ontario (English)

This manual contains information on implementing the process described in the guideline, understanding and recognizing MSD hazards, assessing risk and controlling hazards.
1571 KB pdf
OHSCO Resource Manual for the MSD Prevention Guideline for Ontario (French)

OHSCO Resource Manual for the MSD Prevention Guideline for Ontario (French)

This manual contains information on implementing the process described in the guideline, understanding and recognizing MSD hazards, assessing risk and controlling hazards.
1394 KB pdf
Order Picking

Order Picking

Order picking can result in a variety of muscle and joint injuries and pains.  Other injuries, and even death, can result from falls and collisions with powered equipment.  Some order pickers may be exposed to hazardous chemicals.

257 KB pdf
Physical Demands Analysis (Fillable Form)

Physical Demands Analysis (Fillable Form)

A physical demands analysis (PDA) is a systematic procedure to quantify and evaluate the physical, cognitive, and environmental demands of the essential and non-essential tasks of a job.

See "Physical Demands Analysis Instruction" for assistance to complete this form.

731 KB pdf
Physical Demands Analysis (Instruction)

Physical Demands Analysis (Instruction)

This is an instruction to help you with completing the "Physical Demands Analysis (Fillable Form)".

733 KB pdf
Pictograms - Hotel Motel

Pictograms - Hotel Motel

Pictograms are visual representations of an action, thing, or idea, and deliver a message to viewers. They have typically been used as warning labels or for directional purposes.

A collaborative project between the Institute for Work & Health, Ministry of Labour, Workplace Safety and Insurance Board and WSPS, involved developing pictograms and companion training for identifying and controlling hazards. This download includes hazard and control pictograms, a PowerPoint presentation for training purposes and an instruction sheet that explains how to use the materials.

40000 KB ZIP
Preparing Foods with Knives

Preparing Foods with Knives

Knives are always hazardous; whether they are sharp or dull and whether they are in use or being stored.  This guideline provides advice on proper use and care of knives.
254 KB pdf
Preventing Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)

Preventing Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)

This guideline will help you understand symptoms, risk factors, and common myths as well as offering some practical information on prevention strategies.
256 KB pdf
Removing Parts with an Oxyacetylene Torch

Removing Parts with an Oxyacetylene Torch

Removing parts with an oxyacetylene torch puts you at risk from welding fumes, flames, and compressed gases, as well as from sharp edges in the parts and from having to work at an awkward posture.
270 KB pdf
Replacing Brake Drums, Shoes or Pads

Replacing Brake Drums, Shoes or Pads

Replacing brakes may expose you to dangerous chemicals, asbestos dust, sharp edges and musculoskeletal disorders.
279 KB pdf
Reusable Bag Guidelines

Reusable Bag Guidelines

Scanning and bagging groceries is a key process and involves a large portion of employees in a grocery store.  Most of the musculoskeletal injuries result from the physical demands of scanning and bagging groceries.  Although environmentally responsible, reusable bags have contributed to a number of new concerns including sprains and strains for cashiers who are handling them.  Existing cash stations were not designed to accommodate the new bags which come in many shapes and sizes.  This guide explores current best practices and identifies possible solutions.
1030 KB pdf
Stocking

Stocking

There are many hazards related to stocking.  This download will help you identify potential hazards and what to do to minimize or eliminate exposure to them.
261 KB pdf
Work, Warm-Up, Stretch and Flexibility Program

Work, Warm-Up, Stretch and Flexibility Program

This stretching and flexibility program includes a guide to implementing the program in your workplace; posters illustrating and describing how to properly perform warm-up exercises before starting work as well as stress releasers that can be done during work; an employee handout illustrating and describing how to properly perform flexibility stretches at home.

888 KB ZIP
Working as a Cashier

Working as a Cashier

This guideline outlines the hazards associated with this type of work and provides advice on how to work safely to avoid risk of injury.
272 KB 
Working as a Sales Representative

Working as a Sales Representative

Working as a sales representative can be a demanding and hectic position, where the risk of musculoskeletal injuries is increased.
219 KB 
Working in the Dishwasher Area

Working in the Dishwasher Area

This guideline outlines the hazards associated with working in a dishwashing area and provides guidance on safe work practices to help reduce or eliminate the risk.
920 KB pdf
Working in the Service or Pick-Up Area

Working in the Service or Pick-Up Area

This guideline identifies the hazards associated with working in a restaurant service pick-up area.  It also provides safe work guidelines that will help you eliminate or reduce the risk.
252 KB pdf

Articles

6 low-tech, low-cost ergo solutions for small business

6 low-tech, low-cost ergo solutions for small business

"When it comes to addressing ergonomic issues," says WSPS ergonomist Mike Lanigan, "small business employers tell me they face three big challenges: cost, time, and resources. 'This is why I can't do it,' they say. "These are very real challenges for businesses of any size," continues Mike, "but low-tech, low-cost solutions exist."

Oct 06, 2016
12 ways you can make Global Ergonomics Month a game-changer

12 ways you can make Global Ergonomics Month a game-changer

October is Global Ergonomics Month - a perfect time to introduce changes in your workplace that reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and improve productivity, says WSPS ergonomist Sandra Patterson. "MSDs consistently remain the single biggest cause of lost workdays, and they occur in every industry sector and age group. Make big gains against these injuries by launching your own campaign during Global Ergonomics Month."

Sep 08, 2016
Material handling blitz #1: inspectors' MSD prevention priorities

Material handling blitz #1: inspectors' MSD prevention priorities

During the Ministry of Labour's material handling blitz, running from September 14 to October 23, inspectors are asking employers about manual handling procedures, related worker training, and workplace supervision. "These are fundamental parts of a musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) prevention program," says WSPS ergonomist Sandra Patterson.

Sep 04, 2015
September material handling blitz: conduct your own inspection now

September material handling blitz: conduct your own inspection now

On September 14, the Ministry of Labour will begin a 6-week material handling inspection blitz. Get ahead of the ministry by conducting your own blitz now, advises WSPS consultant Sandy Ash. "Turn this into an opportunity by proactively identifying gaps in your prevention program and implementing an action plan. It's all very positive if it's an impetus for improvement."

Aug 06, 2015
BlackBerry thumb, iPod finger, text neck: these repetitive strain injuries are no joke

BlackBerry thumb, iPod finger, text neck: these repetitive strain injuries are no joke

Don't be misled by the flippant labels. Repetitive strain injuries from overusing handheld electronic devices are just the latest in a long list of equipment- and task-related injuries that can cause painful and sometimes permanent damage to our musculoskeletal system, undermining our well-being and productivity. What's new is how these hazards are creeping from our work lives into our personal lives.

Feb 25, 2015
Material handling blitz on now: use past results to manage your hazards

Material handling blitz on now: use past results to manage your hazards

Starting September 15, Ministry of Labour inspectors are conducting the third in a series of material handling blitzes. This follows a warehousing blitz six months ago and a racking and storage blitz three years ago. "This tells me that the ministry very clearly understands the province's injury statistics and has found evidence during previous blitzes to warrant more inspections," says WSPS consultant Sandy Ash.

Sep 05, 2014
Sept-Oct material handling blitz: ask yourself these questions ahead of the MOL inspectors

Sept-Oct material handling blitz: ask yourself these questions ahead of the MOL inspectors

From September 15 to October 26, Ministry of Labour inspectors will target workplaces for material handling hazards and infractions. Expect the ministry to release details in early September. In the meantime, WSPS warehouse/material handling specialist Chuck Leon offers a head start on questions inspectors may ask.

Jul 04, 2014
Participatory ergonomics: how one business earned a 5.5 : 1 benefit-to-cost ratio

Participatory ergonomics: how one business earned a 5.5 : 1 benefit-to-cost ratio

Involving workers in reducing the risk of musculoskeletal disorders is expected to save one Ontario clothing manufacturer $360,000, according to researchers involved in an onsite participatory ergonomics project. At a cost of $66,000, the project offers the employer a 5.5 benefit-to-cost ratio.

May 16, 2013
Preventing MSDs: keeping it simple

Preventing MSDs: keeping it simple

February 28 is Canada's national RSI (Repetitive Strain Injury) Awareness Day. To avoid the fear factor involved in launching a musculoskeletal disorder prevention program, consider simplifying the solutions. Here are eight ideas to consider. Together, they can significantly improve health in your workplace and give you something to celebrate on next year's RSI Day.
Feb 19, 2013
OLRB rejects appeal of material handling orders

OLRB rejects appeal of material handling orders

An Ontario brewery has lost an appeal of orders issued after a Ministry of Labour ergonomist observed a driver handling product on a routine delivery route. Most male workers would be physically incapable of performing some of the driver's tasks, the ergonomist noted in her report. Read on for more about the OLRB decision and what workplaces can learn from it.
Nov 15, 2012
MSD prevention: how Natrel won over its Orleans workforce

MSD prevention: how Natrel won over its Orleans workforce

Last fall, Natrel’s Orleans, Ontario plant embarked on an ambitious musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) prevention program. At its core: ergonomic assessments on which the facility could build an MSD hazard reduction strategy. A key success factor for plant manager Craig Levia was ensuring employees understood and bought into the process. Read about the steps Natrel took to help workers and supervisors understand what causes MSDs and how to prevent them.
Aug 15, 2012
Advance notice: new CSA workplace ergonomics standard

Advance notice: new CSA workplace ergonomics standard

A new CSA ergonomics standard scheduled for release in March will help workplaces reduce the risk of repetitive strain injuries by providing information and tools on identifying ergonomic hazards, assessing risks, and implementing a prevention and control program.
Jan 23, 2012
Are You Ready for the MOL MSD Blitz on Manual Material Handling?

Are You Ready for the MOL MSD Blitz on Manual Material Handling?

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are injuries and disorders of the musculoskeletal system and can affect the muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints, cartilage, and/or spinal discs that may be caused or aggravated by various hazards in the workplace.
Jan 23, 2012
MSDs: first MOL blitz of 2012

MSDs: first MOL blitz of 2012

In February, the Ministry of Labour will conduct a month-long inspection blitz on musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). This MSD blitz, the ministry’s third, will concentrate on manual material handling, especially in the industrial, construction, mining, and health care sectors.
Dec 13, 2011
Housekeeping injuries and the employee satisfaction factor

Housekeeping injuries and the employee satisfaction factor

A bill working its way through California’s legislative process has brought public attention to a repetitive strain issue facing a key demographic in the hospitality industry: hotel and motel housekeepers. Although the issue may seem narrowly defined, the solution applies to all industry sectors.
Nov 18, 2011
Reusable bag guide: responding to a new hazard

Reusable bag guide: responding to a new hazard

Scanning and bagging groceries is such a commonplace activity that shoppers barely notice the process. But grocery retailers monitor it closely for its impact on customer service, employee well-being, and productivity. Recently, a new concern has arisen: potential health and safety implications of reusable bags.
Nov 18, 2011

Videos

Musculoskeletal Disorder Innovations in the Construction Sector

Musculoskeletal Disorder Innovations in the Construction Sector

Centre of Research Expertise for the Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders (CRE-MSD) - Dr. Desre Kramer
Infrastructure Health & Safety Association (IHSA) – Enzo Garritano

How can you persuade employers and workers in the construction sector to adopt new ways of doing work that will reduce their musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)?

Jun 10, 2011